Prior to the Russian invasion of Ukraine, the European Union took approximately 40% of its natural gas supply and over 25% of its imported crude oil supply from Russia.  The war caused severe disruption of energy supplies throughout the Union. 

The purpose of this resource center is to set out in one comprehensive post the panoply of initiatives and measures the EU and its member states are pursuing to address this disruption and enhance their energy security (including accelerating their use of renewables).

As further detailed in the table of contents below and in the left-pane navigation, we cover (and provide links to practical supporting materials in respect of) the following topics:

  • capping prices and taxing extraordinary profits of EU energy producers and providers 
  • state aid issues
  • assuring EU gas supplies
  • efforts to diversify the EU’s energy mix
  • proposals to cap the price of Russian gas

If you would like to discuss with us how your business may be affected by, and may be able to benefit from, these many initiatives, please do reach out to your usual contact at Cleary Gottlieb.




1. Restrictions / Redistribution of extraordinary profits on EU energy companies arising from the energy disruption

a) Caps on revenues of EU companies producing electricity with low-carbon sources (e.g., renewables)

b) Redistribution of profits / taxation of EU fossil fuel companies

c) Retail prices discounts in favour of consumers

2. State aid to industry

a) Temporary framework

b) Aid schemes approved

3. Managing, and ensuring security of, EU gas supplies

a) Reliable suppliers and diversification of the sources of gas and oil supply to the EU

b) New EU import infrastructure

c) EU Minimum filling storage obligation

4. Diversifying the EU’s Energy Mix

a) Long-term intervention: investments in renewable sources

b) Short-term intervention: reducing / capping gas consumption

c) Short-term and long-term intervention: coal-fired and nuclear power plant revamp

d) Fast-track permit-granting process for renewable energy projects

e) Investor-state arbitration in the energy sector likely as green transition accelerates

5. Mechanisms to lower the prices of gas

a) Resolving oil & gas disputes through arbitration