Designing common rules for the EU’s electricity market is challenging. Getting 27 Member States with differing energy mixes to integrate their energy markets and agree on an ambitious climate agenda is fraught with difficulties, which creates legal uncertainties for businesses. Even more so when the energy crisis provoked by Russia’s invasion of Ukraine puts a further strain on electricity grids. The EU’s emergency reaction to the energy crisis has to strike a fine balance between letting Member States support their economies, holding the single market together while promoting an ambitious climate agenda.


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